Avinoam Danin, a botanist from Hebrew University of Jerusalem claims he has identified pollen from the tumbleweed Gundelia tournefortii and a bean caper on the shroud.
For example, it is claimed to be the negative image of a crucifixion victim.
It is claimed to be the image of a man brutally beaten in a way which corresponds to the way Jesus is thought to have been treated.
Since the Sudarium is believed to have existed before the 8th century, according to Danin, there is "clear evidence that the shroud originated before the eighth century." The cloth is believed to have been in a chest of relics from at least the time of the Moorish invasion of Spain.
It is said to have been in the chest when it was opened in 1075.
For his work, Mc Crone was awarded the American Chemical Society's Award in Analytical Chemistry in 2000.
The shroud, however, has many defenders who believe they have demonstrated that the cloth is not a forgery, dates from the time of Jesus, is of miraculous origin, etc. Forensic tests on the red stuff have identified it as red ocher and vermilion tempera paint.
"All empirical evidence and logical reasoning concerning the shroud of Turin will lead any objective, rational person to the firm conclusion that the shroud is an artifact created by an artist in the fourteenth-century."The "shroud" of Turin is a woven cloth about 14 feet long and 3.5 feet wide with an image of a man on it.
Actually, it has two images, one frontal and one rear, with the heads meeting in the middle.
But, since there is no blood on the shroud of Turin and there is no good reason to accept Danin's assumption that the pollen grains were on the Shroud from its origin, this argument is spurious.
In any case, the fact that pollen grains found near the Dead Sea or Jerusalem were on the shroud means little.
Vermilion paint, made from mercuric sulphide, was then splashed onto the image's wrists, feet and body to represent blood." Mc Crone analyzed the shroud and found traces of chemicals that were used in "two common artist's pigments of the 14th century, red ochre and vermilion, with a collagen (gelatin) tempera binder" (Mc Crone 1998).