Vindolanda: The sheer variety of archaeological finds at Vindolanda is astonishing e.g.
The earliest preserved Roman footwear found so far was made in the 4th century BCE, although it is still unknown where the technology originated.
In addition, the Romans innovated a variety of distinctive shoe styles, the most obvious of which are hobnailed shoes and sandals.
They have never been found archaeologically, so it is possible that these were an artistic convention and never made for production. Roman sandals consisted of a leather sole attached to the foot with interlacing thongs.
The sandals were removed before reclining for a feast and at the conclusion of the feast, the diners requested their sandals.
Above is a stone slab water tank system and the water was channelled to the fort and civilian buildings in aqueducts or timber pipes (no lead pipes? Vindolanda: The base of the walls and the hypocausts?
, good ventilation would be needed to keep the grain dry in the granary and stores building, which was probably later converted into living accommodation in the 5th century.
) was a valued craftsman in the days of the Roman Empire, and the Romans contributed the entire-foot-encasing shoe to the Mediterranean world.
Archaeological studies indicate that the Romans brought the shoe-making technology of vegetal tanning to Northwestern Europe.
Vindolanda: The Head Quarters building (Roman 'Principa') which would have been the most impressive building in the fort where the regimental officers and their clerks kept the records of the Fourth Cohort of Gauls.